|Investigations on control efforts and the biology of Cryphalus piceae (Ratz) (Coleoptera|
|Ya┼čar taraf─▒ndan yaz─▒ld─▒|
Investigations on control efforts and the biology of┬á┬áCryphalus piceae (Ratz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and┬á┬áPityokteines curvidens demaged in Artvin spruce forests
Ya┼čar Aksu1┬á┬á┬á Cihangir Dedea─čao─člu1┬á┬á┬á Berna ├çelik G├Âkt├╝rk1┬á
The height of mature Pityokteines curvidens male is 2.7-3.2 mm and female is 2-2.6 mm. They generate twice in a year. First flight time is late April and early may and second flight time is began third week of June and continued to July or middle of August. Males are firstly attaining to trees and then females attain for to breeding. Male P. curvidens is copulate one female as rule. If two female attains, male build up double parenthesis roads. The length of the main road is 5 to 10 cm and 1 mm width. The length of the larva road is 6 to 7 cm.
The height of the Cryphalus piceae is 1.1 to 1.8 mm. They generate once or twice time in a year. First flying time is March-April and second is June. The shape of the main road is shape. They lay 20 to 40 eggs. Both of these insects damaged the same trees. They survive under the bark along the winter as an adult.
Control efforts are carried out in 2009 by cutting two trap trees in a hectare in all 130 hectare fir stands damaged by C. piceae. The number of 1 705 380 P. curvidens annihilated with control efforts carried out between 2002 and 2011 by putting 955 number pheromone traps over the 545 hectare forest patches. It was determined that 91% of P. curvidens adults caught firstly by pheromone traps is male and 9% of is female. Both insect species induced individual mortality of trees. Damage rates reduced by carrying control efforts out where they population goes to increase. Although, P. curvidens damages generally fir trees, it was determined that it also damages individual spruce trees. C. piceae is firstly bothered to trees and weakened to it, thus, it prepare to bother conditions to P.curvidens. ┬áC. piceae prefer thin barked trees as rule. Pheromone traps, It was determined that adults of Thanasimus formicarius, Rhizophagus depressus, Rhizophagus dispar and Rhizophagus sp also fell besides P.curvidens. Predatory insects per trap, control nature, are emitted during the┬á